Chilton 1890ï¿½1893 Joshua Crittenden Chilton was the founding president in 1890 of Texas Normal College and Teachers Training Institute, a private teachers college and music conservatory. It was originally housed in leased facilities above the B.J. Wilson Hardware Store on the northwest corner of Denton Square (current location of Ethan Allen Furniture). Crumley 1893ï¿½1894 In 1893, Chilton turned the school over to John Jackson Crumley, who, among his accomplishments, helped put the "North" into "North Texas." The renaming was the result of a mixup when Emory C. Smith, a State Senator from Denton, introduced a bill (with "North Texas" in its name) that passed in the Texas Legislature in 1893 authorizing the College to issue teaching certificates. Terrill 1894ï¿½1899 Menter Bradley Terrill led the College following the Panic of 1893. He ended his term as president when the College became state institution in 1899 under its new name, "North Texas State Normal College." He went on to found the Terrill School for boys in Dallas in 1906 and played a role in persuading Ela Hockaday, who earned a Bachelor of Arts from North Texas in 1897, to start a school for girls in 1913. Both schools prevailed as Dallas' first attempts to develop private schools on par with some of the exceptional East Coast counterparts. Kendall 1899ï¿½1906 Joel Sutton Kendall is credited for having strengthened a start-up institution, improved its physical facilities, and raised standards in a state-wide operational setting that, in the words of historian James Rogers, was "backwards." Bruce 1906ï¿½1923 William Hershel Bruce, PhD (Mercer), AM (Baylor), AB (Auburn), elevated North Texas from normal to full state-college status. North Texas, before 1921, had maintained high standards of a senior liberal arts college; but, its academic structure was legislatively limited to that of a professional school devoted to training teachers. In the 1917ï¿½1918 school-year, North Texas introduced programs leading to a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Science degree. Broadening academic disciplines was part of a mandated State and concerted national movement to strengthen teachers colleges. In 1921, the State approved its new name, North Texas State Teachers College. That same year, North Texas was admitted to Class A membership in the American Association of Teachers Colleges. Bruce was an internationally known mathematics pedagogue who began his career at North Texas in 1901 as a math professor. Marquis 1923ï¿½1934 In 1925, Robert Lincoln Marquis launched a controversial state-wide campaign to ban freshmen and first-year transfers from competing in intercollegiate athletics. Roy Bedichek, then the chief of Intercollegiate Bureau of the University of Texas Division of Extension, was among his strongest allies. That same year, five religious denominated universities ï¿½ Southwestern, Trinity University (Texas), Howard Payne University, Simmons University, and Austin College ï¿½ resigned from the TIAA to form the Texas Conference. The measure passed in 1927; but there was little success with enforcement. Marquis died in 1934. McConnell 1934ï¿½1951 Under president Weston Joseph McConnell, the college grew tremendously; the first master's degrees were awarded in 1936. By 1940, North Texas was the largest state supported teachers college in the world; and, McConnell hired a music school pioneer, Wilfred Bain, who restructured the music program into a comprehensive music school, which as of the early 1940s, became one of the largest in the country. In May 1949, North Texas, by enactment of the Fifty-first Texas Legislature, dropped the word "Teachers" from its name, divorced itself from state-wide teachers college system, and established a board of regents of its own. Its enrollments during 1947ï¿½48 and 1948ï¿½49 increased more than any other institution in the state. In 1949, it was the fourth largest institution in the state and the only teachers college in the South that was fully approved by the American Association of Universities. Matthews 1951ï¿½1968 James Carl (J.C.) Matthews also oversaw important developments, including mandated integration in 1956. In 1961, the college became North Texas State University. While North Texas had been offering doctor of education degrees and doctor of philosophy degrees in music (in composition, musicology, and theory) since September 1950, the Texas Commission on Higher Education authorized doctor of philosophy programs in chemistry, biology, and physics in 1964 ï¿½ and doctor of philosophy in business administration in 1965. Beginning of desegregation ï¿½ 1954 In June 1954, A. Tennyson Miller (nï¿½ Lord Alfred Tennyson Miller; 1913ï¿½1993), a principal at Lincoln High School in Port Arthur who had been accepted in the doctoral program in education, became the first African American student to enroll. He had been admitted under the Heman Marion Sweatt ruling. Joseph Louis Atkins (born 1936), who had recently graduated from high school, visited North Texas in June 13, 1955 ï¿½ accompanied by his mother, Mable, and Juanita Craft ï¿½ to seek enrollment for that fall. University officials turned Atkins down, reportedly, to avoid statutes of the state prohibiting enrollment of African American undergraduates. Atkins, a minor, and his father, Willie, sued Matthews in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas in Sherman to force the university of uphold Brown vs. Board of Education. On December 2, 1955, Judge Joe Sheehy ruled in Atkins' favor, denying North Texas the right to refuse admission to Atkins and further ordering Matthews to immediately implement its proposed "gradual plan" for admitting African American undergraduates. Matthews waived his option to appeal and made plans to integrate the following semester. Atkins had already enrolled at the University of Texas at El Paso which admitted him and 12 other African Americans in the Fall of 1955 in compliance with a court order from the Thelma White case. But at North Texas, in February 1956, Irma Etta Sephas (nï¿½e Irma Etta Loud; 1914ï¿½1991) became the first African American undergraduate to enroll. Ben Wooten, a North Texas alumnus and the Chairman of the Board of Regents at the time, later stated that a court order served to minimize potential controversy, rather than had the university been proactive under its own volition. Grace Cartwright, another regent, said that the board began making plans for desegregation almost as soon as the Atkins lawsuit had been filed. Matthews, who had barred the media from campus and maintained a low profile during desegregation, has in retrospect, been cited favorably for having employed a strategy devoid of any major incident, relative to antagonistic occurrences at other institutions and continued widespread denials of admissions. In the fall of 1956, after the race barrier had been broken at North Texas, then Governor Allan Shivers launched a fight against desegregation in Texas, ordering state police to prevent the court-ordered desegregation of Mansfield High School. That same year, at Texarkana Junior College and Lamar State College in Beaumont, angry mobs turned away African American students. Atkins returned to North Texas in 1967 to earn a master's degree and had a successful career as a school teacher and education consulting. In March 2001, the Texas Legislative Black Caucus presented him with the "Outstanding Texan Award." In March 2001, UNT awarded two Doctor of Humane Letters degrees, one to Atkins and one (posthumously) to Miller ï¿½ and has since established two scholarships in their names. Kamerick 1968ï¿½1970 John Joseph Kamerick, PhD (born 1919), who previously had been Vice President and Provost of Kent State University, was considered an academic progressive who presided during a national atmosphere of student protests, primarily in opposition to the Vietnam War. Students and faculty perceived him favorably as strong academic and advocate of academic freedom. He resigned in 1970, reportedly under pressure from then Governor Preston Smith. In sharp contrast to his predecessor, Kamerick was a proponent of involving students and faculty in forming new policies. He also ended Matthews' moratorium on private fund-raising and foundation development. Nolen, Vandiver 1970ï¿½1982 Presidents during this period: John L. Carter, Jr. (acting, 1970ï¿½1971), C.C. "Jitter" Nolen (Calvin Cleave Nolen) (1971ï¿½1979), John L. Carter, Jr. (acting, 1979ï¿½1980), Frank E. Vandiver (1980ï¿½1981), and Howard W. Smith Jr. (ad interim, 1981ï¿½1982). Hurley 1982ï¿½2000 In 1982, Alfred Francis Hurley, PhD & Brig. Gen. USAF (Ret.) (1928ï¿½2013), became UNT's twelfth president and second chancellor. In 1988, he oversaw the name change to the "University of North Texas." Hurley stepped down as president of UNT in October 2000 to become the system's first full-time chancellor. His tenures as president (eighteen years) and chancellor (twenty years) are the longest held by anyone in those positions. In 2002, the Regents renamed UNT Administration Building ï¿½ currently fifty-seven years old ï¿½ in honor of Alfred F. and Johanna H. Hurley. Pohl, Bataille, Rawlins 2000ï¿½2013 Presidents between 2000 and 2013 are Norval F. Pohl (2000ï¿½2006), Gretchen M. Bataille (2006ï¿½2010), Phillip C. Diebel (ad interim, 2010), and V. Lane Rawlins (2010ï¿½2013). Smatresk 2014ï¿½present On February 3, 2014, Neal Smatresk, PhD, an academic research biologist, became the 16th President of the university. After President Marquis, who also had been a biologist, Smatresk is the second President in the history of North Texas from the natural science academic field.